Nepal’s biogeography setting and climatic variations provide a unique habitat for the growth of different biological species in a small area of 1,47,516 square kilometers. Hence, one could see the variation in biological species within a minimal elevation differences. The country occupies only 0.003 percent of the total land area of the world but it harbours about 2 percent of the world’s flowering plants, 5 percent of the bryophytes and 3.5 percent of pteridophytes. These examples indicate the richness of Nepal in biodiversity. The country has been divided into three ecological regions namely, Mountain, Hill and Terai Region. Each region has different, distinct environment and ecological process due to the geographical and climatic variation. The biodiversity in different geographical regions are mentioned as follow:
Terai region lies in the southern part of Nepal. This region has occupied about 23% of the total land area of the country. The climate is hot and suitable for agriculture especially for the production of paddy, wheat, sugarcane, jute, oil seeds, etc. It is the granary basket of Nepal. Biodiversity of this region are mentioned in the following points:
- The Terai region has tropical evergreen, forest and monsoon type of vegetation.
- Similarly, Harro, Barro, Amala, Asuro, Pipal are the medicinal plants of Terai region.
- Sal, Sisou, Simal, Khayar, Pipal, Jamun are the trees found here.
- As the soil is alluvial and fertile people cultivate food crops like; Maize, Rice, Wheat and cash crops like; Pulse, Sugarcane, Jute, Tobacco, etc.
- This region is suitable habitat for Peacock, Crane, Falcon, Eagle and other birds.
- This region is the habitat for the animals like Bengal tiger, Asiatic elephant, One-horned Rhinoceros, Common Leopard, Spotted Deer, Wolf, Ghariyal, etc.
- Different species of fish like Asala, Kauwai, Jhinge Machha, Rahu, Common Carp, Gras Carp, Silver Carp, etc. are also found in the streams, rivers and ponds of Terai region.
Geographically, Hilly region lies in the mid of Mountain and Terai region. This region has occupied about 42% of the total land area of the country. This region is rich in biodiversity due to great variation in physical features and altitudinal elevation as well as diverse climate within a small area. This region has large range if ecosystem and micro-habitats. Temperate and mixed forest are found in this region. Biodiversity of this region are mentioned in the following points:
- Rani salla, Dhupi salla, Chilaune, Gobre salla, Rhododendrons, Devdar and Katus are the forest tress that are abundantly found in this region.
- The agricultural products like Maize, Barley, Potato, Buckwheat, Millet, Paddy, Soybeans, Wheat, etc. are grown in this region.
- Fruits like Mango, Pear, Orange, Lemon and banana are also abundantly found in this region.
- Medicinal plants like; Amala (Indian Gooseberry), Allo, Chandan, Chairaito, Berbery Timur, Cinnamon, Pakhaned, etc. are found in this region.
- The wild animals such as Sloth Bear, Clouded Leopard, Barking Deer, Leopard Cat, Rhesus Monkey, Wild Cat, Chital, etc. found in this region.
- This region is also famous for various species of birds like Kalij, Kite, Dove, Black Buck, Eagle, Falcon, Parrot, Crane, Luiche, etc.
- Different species of fish like Asala, Jalkapur, Tite Machha, etc. survive in the ponds, streams and rivers of this region.
The Mountain region lies in the extreme northern part of Nepal. This region occupies about 35% of the total land area of the country. The topography of this region is rough. There are mild hills, small valleys, tars, basins and gorges in this region. High mountains covered with snow are cold the species of flora and fauna which can adapt in that climate are found in adequate number. Biodiversity of this region are mentioned in the following points:
- The evergreen coniferous alpine forest is found in this region.
- The tree species like Rani salla, Dhupi salla, Jhuse salla, Thigure salla, Burch, Gobre salla, Rhododendrons, Devdar, Maple, Fir, etc. are found in this region.
- The medicinal plants like Timur, Panch Aunle, Padamchal, Yarshagumba, Jatamasi, Bihama, Pakhanbed, Kutki, Atis, Guchi Chayu, etc. are found in this region.
- Agriculture production is limited because of cold climate and lack of fertile soil. However, people cultivate Potato, Buckwheat, Barley, Maize, Millet, Uwa, etc. in this region.
- The fruits like Apple, Orange, Lemon and other citrus fruits are also cultivated in this region.
- Yak, Chauri, Sheep, Tibetan Goat, Horse, Dog, Mule are the domestic animals that are abundantly found in this region.
- Assamese Monkey, Jharal, Ghorai, Musk Deer, Red Panda, Wild Yak, Black Beer, Snow leopard re the wild animals found in this region.
- Similarly, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Carrot, Spinach, Garlic, Radish, etc. are the major vegetables of this region.
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