Effective and Causes of Tsunami
The earthquake and tsunami are caused by several reasons as illustrated below:
- Earthquake: Major tsunami are generated by earthquake in marine and coastal regions due to the movement of oceanic and continental plate.
- Underwater Landslides: Tsunamis are caused by underwater landslides and glacier calving associated with earthquakes. They are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes.
- Volcanoes: Volcanic eruptions can also cause a destructive tsunami. To prove it clearly, we can take example of the volcano Krakatoa in the East India in 1883 AD which had produced a 30-meter tsunami wave killing over 36,000 people.
- Asteroid Impacts: There are thousands of asteroids (meteors 0 circling around the sun. They may drop down into the water bodies of the earth causing tsunamis. However, asteroid tsunami is a rare phenomenon.
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Effects of Tsunami
Like earthquake tsunami also causes the great loss of lives, property and infrastructures through direct or indirect damage. The effects of tsunami also include severe contamination of soil and water, permanent change to the landscape. All these lead towards economic crisis, epidemics, hunger, theft and robbery.
Tsunamis can cause great casualties. Many tsunamis have caused great loss of human life and property in different parts of the word in the history. A large part of Indian Ocean and Coastal regions were affected by a tsunami in 2004 caused due to an earthquake at the bottom of sea near Indonesian Sumatra Island. Nearly four hundred thousand people died due to that tsunami. Similarly, more than fifteen thousand people died and many were injured and went missing in Japan due to a tsunami on 11th March, 2011 AD. Likewise, countries like Portugal, Italy, and Thailand, etc. also have suffered huge losses due to tsunami time and again in history.
Though Nepal is a landlocked country, we may be victimized by tsunami when in other countries.
Here are some safety tips we can take to avoid trouble if we are caught in a tsunami.
- When in coastal areas, stay alert for tsunami warnings.
- Plan an evacuation route that leads to higher ground.
- Know the warning signs of tsunami: rapidly rising or falling coastal waters and rumblings of an offshore earthquake.
- Never stay near sore to watch a tsunami come in.
- A tsunami is a series of waves. Do not return to an affected coastal area until authorities say it is safe.
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