Africa: Social and Economic Activities
Social Life of Africa
The Negroid (Black Africans) are the indigenous people of Africa. They established their kingdoms some 500 years ago. From 17th century onwards, the Europeans colonized the movement through trade. By 1900, they established their colonies all over Africa and ruled for about a century. However, the African nations (Africa: Social and Economic Activities) gradually became independent after the World Wars. At present, it is the home of about 00 black tribes having typical culture and identity. It is also resided by the others are the followers of the Christianity.
Harsh climate, lack of moisture, desertification, civil war and poor infrastructures are principle causes behind the poor progress. The tribes often wage in civil wars and (Africa: Social and Economic Activities) commit crimes. The also suffer from other hazards such as epidemics, famine, malnutrition, superstitious, high birth rate, drug abuse and (Africa: Social and Economic Activities) political instability. The HIV/AIDS and civil wars have taken the lives of the millions of energetic youths and human resource. Their grandparents look after the children due to the loss of lives of the parents. Despite such hazards, the continent still holds a big prospect for progress. Its natural resources, landforms, wildlife, diverse people and culture serve well for its development.
Economic Activities of Africa:
Despite the European colonization, Africa is still a poverty-ridden continent. Expect the limited nations like Botswana, South Africa, Algeria Egypt, and Kenya, most of others are below, the poverty line (BPL). The progress is too slow and non-sustainable. The forests are cleared, the soil is overgrazed, and the population distribution is uneven. Only the coastal areas, river valleys, river basins and southern parts have a large population.
Although just 8% of the total land is arable and fertile, more than 75% population relies upon farming, Egypt and South Africa grow maximum maize. Other crops like paddy, wheat, millet, cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, cashew nut-cola, cloves, tropical fruits, citrus fruits, etc. are cultivated as per temperature variation and fertility of soil. Nevertheless, the farming is subsistence in general. The commercial farming has been practiced in limited areas by the Europeans, multinational companies, rich Africans and the government. The Europeans have run the large agriculture farms called ‘Estates’.
Animal rearing is extensively done in few countries. The people have domesticated mainly the cattle and sheep for meat, milk and wool. The Savanna has been used for the purpose. South Africa exports the wool of Merino sheep in a large quantity.
Industries and Mining:
Though Africa is very rich in minerals, there is poor development of mining industries. There are mainly the agro-based and handicraft industries. Textile industries, skin tanning industries, food processing and rubber factories, oil mills, etc. re found in many countries. The valuable minerals such as gold, diamond, gas, copper, bauxites (aluminums), iron-ore, coal, petroleum, zinc, lead, mica, uranium, manganese, etc. have not been utilized. However, the countries like South Africa have mineral-based industries as well. South Africa has gold and diamond refineries, too. Some other countries run iron, steel, copper and aluminums manufacturing industries. Very less countries produce automobiles, machineries, weapons, etc.
The majestic and panoramic landscapes, multi-cultural features and variety of wild lives attract millions of tourists throughout the world. There are many national parks, wildlife reserves and sanctuaries protected areas in the continent. The tourists visit the parks and the Savanna, and enjoy the safari. It is the film and documentary shooting hub too.
Measures to Promote Tourism:
Despite several efforts, there are many problems yet to be solved for developing tourism in Africa, mainly in the Savanna. Let’s discuss the solutions pointwise:
- A proper management for having close view of the wild lives without disturbance.
- Development of the tourism-related infrastructures including the trained guides.
- Management of balanced ecology, sufficient pasture-land and drinking water for the wildlife.
- Solving of the demands of the local people such as letting them graze their cattle in buffer zone.
- Control and punishment to the illegal poaching of animals and birds.