Physical division of Australia
Australia is the largest island and the smallest continent of the world. It is also called an island continent. The name is derived from the Latin word ‘Australia’ meaning ‘southern’. Its official name is (Physical division of Australia) Commonwealth of Australia. It is the only continent that has one nation and is sixth largest country in the world.
It also includes large island of Tasmania, New Zealand and other small islands. Australia lies entirely south of the equator and lies in the eastern hemisphere of the globe. Tropic of Capricorn passes through the (Physical division of Australia) center of this continent. This continent is located between 12 degree south to 38 degree south latitude and between 114 degree east to 152 degree east longitude.
Australia is bordered by Indian Ocean in the west and north, the Southern Ocean in the south and the Pacific Ocean in the east. The Great Barrier Reef made up of coral deposit runs parallel to the north (Physical division of Australia) coast for a length of about 2000 km. This is the largest coral formation in the world.
Australia can be divided into four major physical regions. They are as follows:
- The Western Plateau
- The Central Low Land
- The Eastern Highlands
- The Coastal Plains
1. The Western Plateau:
The western plateau extends over two third of the continent. It spreads across the whole of western and most of southern and northern Australia. It is made up of ancient hard crystalline rocks which are rich in (Physical division of Australia) minerals. The average elevation of the plateau is 365 m, making Australia the flattest continent in the world. The western edge of the plateau slopes steeply to the sea and much of the western plateau is a desert or semi-desert.
2. The Central Low Land:
It is lying between the Western Plateau and Eastern Highlands. It stretches from the (Physical division of Australia) Gulf of Carpentaria in the north to the Encounter Bay in the south. It can be divided into three parts on the basis of drainage. There are the great Artesian Basin to the north, the lake Eyre Basin in the center and the Murray Darling Basin to the south-east.
3. The Eastern Highlands:
The Eastern Highlands run parallel to the east coast from Cape York Peninsula in the north through Bass Strait and into Tasmania in the south. Australia’s longest chain of mountain range is the great diving range of the Australian Alps. Mount Kosciusko (2234 m) is the highest peak of Australia. Mainly small swift rivers flow (Physical division of Australia) down these highlands to east Coastal plains. Murray (2574 km) and Darling River rise on the western slope of the eastern highlands. Murray the main river of Australia and Darling is the tributary.
4. The Coastal Plains:
The coastal plains lie to the east of the east of the Great Dividing Range (The Eastern Highlands). It is Australia’s most fertile farmland and receives plenty of rain. It is cut by the several short fast flowing rivers that raise eastern highlands and empty into the Pacific Ocean.
Major Rivers of Australia:-
There are many big rivers in Australia. Murray-Darling is the biggest which is made up of the combination of Murray and Darling rivers. Both of these rivers flow from the mountain range of Eastern Highland. (Physical division of Australia) Murray is snow fed and it has enough water in flow. It is located in New South Wales and South Australia, and it forms part of the border that separates New South Wales and Victoria. The Murrumbidgee is next tributary of Murray and third biggest river of Australia.
Climate and Natural Vegetation of Australia:-
As Australia lies in the southern hemisphere, it has just the opposite climate than in Nepal. Like Nepal, Australia also has different types of climate. The climate of Australia can vary a great deal from place to place. Heavy rainfall occurs in summer in the eastern part of Australia. Due to the effect of sea, Tasmania and New Zealand experience favorable climate throughout the years.
It is hot and wet in summer and cold and dry in the winter in the northern coast. The southern region of Australia is temperate with the temperature ranging from hot to cold. The climate of the Western Plateau is very hot and dry in summer and cold in winter.
Australia’s flora can be divided into different vegetation groups. The main vegetation type in Australia is the hummock grasslands. These grasslands can be found in Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory. Eucalyptus and Acacia trees are found in south east and south west corners of Australia. Various kind of wildlife, such as Kangaroo, Platypus, Emu, Koala, etc are found in Australia.
Socioeconomic Activities of Australia:-
People in Australia are very much advanced in terms of using new technologies in working places and self development. Majority of the people who are migrated here are mainly from Europe. Besides them, Australian indigenous people called Aborigine also live here. Now-a-days people from all around the world are immigrating to this continent. At present, even Nepali people are shifting there in order to work study and live there permanently.
People who are living there have got busiest time. They utilize time for the productive works. Hence every area is well developed there. The literacy rate of the Australia is almost hundred percentages. Majority of people in Australia speak English language.
The people in Australia are engaged in various occupations. Most of the people are engaged in sheep rearing, mining and cultivation. Australia is famous for sheep rearing for wool products, and cattle rearing for beef and dairy products. It exports around 95% wool products around the world, and Australia alone produces approximately 30% of the world’s total wool. Cane, banana, maize, paddy, cotton, grapes, oranges, etc are grown here.
Australia is rich in natural resources and minerals. People are able to utilize those resources efficiently for industrial purposes. Motor vehicles and ship-building are the major industries of Australia. Iron, steel, aluminum, gold, silver, copper, coal, uranium are found in the western plateau of Australia. Australia has made progress in industrial development and became economically sound and prosperous continent in the world.