Nepal suffers very much because of social problems and evils. Both social problems and evils are the malpractices in societies that create obstacle in smooth development. However, social evils have religious or cultural origin unlike social problems. Among so (Social problems and Evils in Nepal) many social problems prevalent in our country, we are discussing on human trafficking.
What Human Trafficking Is
The illegal process of moving human away for the purpose of prostitution, labor, exploitation, trading of body organs and other legally as well as morally wrong acts are known as human trafficking. The trafficking is done through convincing the victim for employment, travelling or (Social problems and Evils in Nepal) some other lucrative facilities. It is a modern form of slavery because the victims are controlled through force, fraud or coercion. Such victims re commonly child workers, foreign employees, children born through rape or polygamy, etc. They rarely come forward for help because of language problem, fear and ignorance. Awareness campaigns and poverty reduction can help in minimizing the problem of human trafficking.
Palermo Protocols on Humans Trafficking
In 2000 AD, the UN General Assembly announced the Palermo protocols in Italy to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in person, targeting mainly to children and women. The protocols have been accepted by over 150 countries. It defines human (Social problems and Evils in Nepal) trafficking as “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.’
Types of Human Trafficking
Most common types of human trafficking are sex-trafficking, forced labour, debt bondage and organ trade. Forced labour, generally done for commercial sex or to obtain labour, is the biggest sector of trafficking in the world. Victims are trafficked across both national and international borders, nearly part of the world. Most human trafficking surprisingly still occurs within national borders. The UN report estimates that trafficking victims represent over 130 different nationalities in almost 120 countries. Human Trafficking and Transportation Control Act, 2064 BS has strictly prohibited any sort of human trafficking in Nepal. Nevertheless, Nepal suffers from all sorts of trafficking as mentioned above.
Let’s discuss some forms of trafficking prevalent in Nepal: –
- Girl Trafficking
Girl trafficking is an acute problem in our country. Though Sindhupalchowk district records the most vulnerable area in Nepal, the bordering districts to India are not le risky in this regard. As reported by the UNICEF, about 7000 Nepali women and girls are trafficked to India alone every year. Nowadays, the nations like China, Malaysia, Korea, Gulf, and south-east Asian countries are equally vulnerable for the Nepali girl trafficking. The girls and women are trafficked even to Europe, America and Africa in the name of employment. The total trafficking of both women and children to other countries including India exceeds 13,000 annually.
The girls and women re mainly trafficked for carrying out flesh trade. Besides, they are also traded for forced labour or body organs. The borders lure the girls with sweet dreams. The victims’ parents and guardians easily trust the brokers because of their fake promises such as marriage, employment and good life in towns or abroad, etc. Poverty, lack of awareness, familial tension, domestic violence, etc. are responsible factors behind this problem.
Nepal police, Ministry of Women and Children, National Women Commission, District Commission Committee, CBI, etc. are working hard on controlling girl trafficking. The AATWIN (Alliance against Trafficking of Women and Girls in Nepal), an umbrella agency of 15 different organizations working in the sector, is equally active in this regard. This initiative of NGOs like Maiti Nepal, Didi Bahini, ABC Nepal, etc. are very praiseworthy in rescuing and preventing trafficking to India. However, the trafficking to other countries have not been minimized yet. All should work jointly to control the problem. But most importantly, the government has to form very strong law against the problem and implement it effectively.
- Child Trafficking
Child trafficking is the trading of children aiming to use them as domestic slaves, illegal labour, drug traffickers, or to exploit sexually. The problem exists all over the world and in many forms such as begging, organs selling, circus entertainment and so on. It takes place in tri-forms: either with the consent of parents or being forces, or children leaving home voluntarily. But the major causes include poor economic status, peer companion, negligence of family, family tension, wishes for luxurious life and over ambition of children. Most of the victimized children are teens or pre-teens. Young children are also victim of illegal adoption.
In context of Nepal, the problem is more severe in the urban areas and the Terai districts. The strong surveillance, strict law implementation, awareness, etc. may be helpful in controlling and minimizing child trafficking. Local people and local organizations, civil society, NGOs, INGOs and the government would help in this regard. Most importantly, child traffickers should be sentenced life imprisonment. Additionally, the guardians and the children themselves need to be very conscious against their misuse and safety.
- Human Organ Trafficking
Very important inner organs of human beings such as kidney, cornea, lung, etc. are illegally obtained and traded for the purpose of transplantation. Due to medical progression, healthy body parts can be transplanted in biological need or other reason. It means, legal and safer transplantation is for good, but it is a crime if done illegally. Among the total transplantation in the world, about 42% is estimated to be done through organ trade.
The Istanbul Declaration held in 2008 AD on ‘ Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism’ tried to restrict international trade of organs and ‘transplant tourism’ (travel for commercial organ transplantation). Now, the declaration has been providing ethical guidance for policy makers and doctors working in transplantation. In Nepal too, organ trade is punishable by law. The WHO and supporters of the Istanbul Declaration focus on the following things in controlling organ trafficking:
- Development of a better system on taking organs of the deceased (for e.g. Organ donation as a compulsion)
- Encouraging living-kidney donation.
- Preventing transplantation that lead to organ failure (e.g. diabetes and hepatitis).
- Implementing laws that strictly prohibit organ trading and trafficking.
To achieve these goals, every country must guarantee self-sufficiency in its transplant needs. It should address the extreme poverty and control the act of organ trade. The governmental procedure should be improved to facilitate the needy.