Population Management

Population Management

Rapid population growth has become one of the great problems for the developing countries. It is fact that rapidly increasing problems is threatening the very existence of human beings. It is quite clear that, population is increasing faster in the developing countries including our nation whereas resources cannot be multiplied in the same proportion. In this situation, population management is the best instrument to maintain balance between population growth rate and socio-economic development of the society and nation.

“Population management can be considered as a process by which growth rate and distribution pattern of population can be managed in accordance with the carrying capacity of the available resources of the given place.” As people are dependent on nature and natural resources for their daily life, management of population concerns their survival. Population management does not mean only to control growth rate of population but also accelerates the growth rate of depopulation. Population management gives focus on population distribution, composition and migration pattern along with their linkage with total development.

Methods of Population Management

The plans, policies and programs undertaken to reduce the rapid growth rate of population or to carry out the measures to increase the growth rate of population to maintain balance between the existing resources and population is considered as population management. There are various population control measures for the management of population.

These controlling measures can be divided into direct and indirect measures. The direct population control measures deal with those measures which directly control the population growth rate. The controlling measures like appropriate age at marriage, proper birth spacing, legal abortion, control of migration, use of contraception are considered as the direct population control measures. Similarly, the measure which indirectly support to control the population growth rate are perceived as indirect population control population controlling measures. The controlling measures such as education, health facilities, women empowerment, gender equity and equality, employment, awareness can be taken as the example of indirect population controlling measures:

Direct Population Management MethodsIndirect Population Management Methods
Late Age at Marriage.  Population Education.
To keep Proper birth spacing.Increase in Awareness through Education.
Control of Migration.Gender Equity and Equality.
Use of Contraceptive Devices.Employment and Income Generation Activity.
Legal Abortion.Women Empowerment.

 Some of the measures to control rapid growth rate are as explained below:

Proper Birth Spacing

Birth spacing is the period between the birth of the first child to the birth of the next child. It is said that birth spacing 4/5 years is ideal for both the mother and child for their health. If the couple, follow proper birth spacing they can get ample time to take care of their children and at the same time mother’s health also will be sound. Such planning may also help to maintain small family and eventually this practice helps the nation to control rapid growth rate of population.

Appropriate Age of Marriage

Appropriate age of marriage refers to the age when he or she is physically, mentally, emotionally, economically and socially capable for having a married life. Generally, the appropriate age of marriage for male is considered as 25 and above since they are growing up to 25 years. Similarly, the proper age of marriage for female is considered between 20 to 30 years since this period is believed to be healthy fecund period. It is also believed that the first conception before 20 years and after 35 years are not good for the mother and child from the reproductive health perspective. Marriage at appropriate age also helps to control the rapid growth of population.

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